Your Health Matters

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections, affecting millions worldwide. Regular testing for HPV is crucial because:

  • Early Detection: Early identification of HPV can prevent potential complications, including cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers.
  • Peace of Mind: Knowing your HPV status helps you make informed decisions about your health.
  • Preventive Care: If detected early, many HPV infections can be managed or treated before they cause serious health issues.

How to Get Tested for HPV

Getting tested for HPV is simple and straightforward. There are HPV self test kits, which are HPV home test kits. Here’s how you can do it:

  1. Schedule an Appointment: Contact your healthcare provider to set up an appointment for an HPV test. This can be done during a routine pelvic exam or Pap smear.
  2. Visit a Clinic: You can also visit a local health clinic or sexual health center. Many clinics offer confidential and affordable HPV testing services.
  3. Home Testing Kits: For added convenience and privacy, consider using an at-home HPV testing kit. These kits can be ordered online, and you can collect your sample at home and send it to a lab for analysis.
What about testing for HPV in other parts of the body?

The FDA has only approved tests to find HPV in the cervix. Any abnormal (positive) results are managed with extra testing and prompt treatment if the infection causes abnormal cell growth.

There are commercially available oral HPV tests that are not yet FDA-approved or included in screening guidelines. However, some dentists and clinics use them. This is a PCR test type.

Doctors often recommend that high-risk men and some high-risk women get anal HPV testing. Research is being done on options for male genital testing for HPV.

What to Expect During the Test

The HPV test is a simple procedure:

  • For Women: The test is usually done alongside a Pap smear. Your healthcare provider will collect a sample of cells from your cervix using a small brush or swab.
  • For Men: While there is no standard HPV test for men, men can be tested for HPV-related conditions, or other body areas.

Understanding Your Results

Once your test results are available, your healthcare provider will explain what they mean and guide you on the next steps:

  • Negative Result: No HPV was detected. Continue regular screenings as recommended by your healthcare provider.
  • Positive Result: HPV was detected. This doesn’t mean you have cancer, but your healthcare provider will discuss follow-up tests or treatments to monitor and manage the infection.

Follow-Up Care

If your test results are positive, follow-up care is essential to ensure your health and well-being:

  1. Regular Monitoring: Your healthcare provider may recommend more frequent screenings to monitor any changes in your health.
  2. Additional Tests: In some cases, additional tests such as a colposcopy or biopsy may be needed to examine abnormal cells more closely.
  3. Treatment Options: Depending on the results, your healthcare provider will discuss treatment options, which may include procedures to remove abnormal cells or other medical interventions.

A selection of online doctors

Support and Resources

We understand that undergoing HPV testing and follow-ups can be stressful. Here are some resources to support you:

  • Counseling Services: Many clinics offer counseling services to help you cope with any emotional stress related to your HPV status.
  • Educational Materials: Access pamphlets, brochures, and online resources to learn more about HPV and its implications.
  • Community Support: Join support groups or online forums where you can share experiences and receive support from others in similar situations.

Take Charge of Your Health

Your health is your most valuable asset. By getting tested for HPV and following up on your results, you’re taking a proactive step towards maintaining your health and preventing serious complications. Schedule your HPV test today and encourage others to do the same. Together, we can create a healthier future for everyone.

For more information or to schedule an appointment, contact your healthcare provider or visit your local health clinic. Remember, early detection saves lives.

Natural Remedies For Warts

A Natural Remedies Guide for Treating Warts

Warts caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) can be a source of discomfort and concern for many individuals. If you’re seeking natural alternatives to effectively treat this issue without unwanted side effects, on our page, we provide a variety of natural remedy options backed by the experience and wisdom of traditional and alternative medicine.

Genital Warts

Essential Oils: Explore the benefits of essential oils such as tea tree oil, castor oil, and lemon oil, known for their antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties that can help naturally reduce genital warts.

Medicinal Herbs: Discover the power of herbs such as garlic, thyme, and echinacea, which have been used for centuries for their antimicrobial properties and immune-strengthening effects, ideal for combating HPV at its root.

Apple Cider Vinegar: Known for its ability to balance skin pH and fight infections, apple cider vinegar can be an effective ally in the fight against genital warts when applied topically regularly.

Apple Cider Vinegar and Tea Tree Oil Ointment for Genital Warts

Note: This ointment is most suitable for treating genital warts, but it can also be effective for other types of warts.

Remember that results may vary, and it’s important to be consistent with the application of the treatment. Always perform a patch test on a small area of the skin before using any homemade cream to ensure there are no adverse reactions. If you have persistent warts or medical concerns, it’s best to consult with a dermatologist or healthcare professional.


  • 1 teaspoon of apple cider vinegar
  • 3 drops of tea tree oil
  • 1 teaspoon of coconut oil or castor oil (optional)


Mix the apple cider vinegar and tea tree oil in a clean container.

If desired, you can add a teaspoon of coconut oil or castor oil to dilute the mixture and make it less irritating for sensitive skin.

Apply a small amount of the ointment onto the genital wart and cover with a bandage.

Leave it on overnight.

Wash the area with warm water in the morning.

Repeat this process every night until the wart disappears completely.

Natural products to apply on other warts

Keep in mind that results may vary, and it’s important to be consistent with the application of the treatment. While these products may possess properties that could potentially aid in removing HPV warts, its effectiveness varies among individuals, and it should be used cautiously. Always perform a patch test on a small area of the skin before using any homemade cream to ensure there are no adverse reactions. If you have persistent warts or medical concerns, it’s best to consult a dermatologist or healthcare professional.

Apple Cider Vinegar

Apple cider vinegar (ACV) is often used as a natural remedy for various skin conditions, including warts caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).

Here are some properties of apple cider vinegar that may contribute to its use in removing HPV warts:

Acetic Acid Content: ACV contains acetic acid, which has been shown to have antimicrobial properties. This acidity can help break down the tissue of warts, potentially aiding in their removal.

Antiviral Activity: Some studies suggest that acetic acid, found in ACV, may have antiviral properties. While research on its specific effects against HPV is limited, its antiviral properties could theoretically help combat HPV-related warts.

Keratolytic Action: ACV’s acidic nature may act as a keratolytic agent, meaning it can soften and dissolve the tough, outer layers of warts, potentially making them easier to remove.

Drying Effect: ACV’s desiccating effect can dry out the wart and the surrounding skin, which might aid in shrinking the wart over time.

Castor Oil

Castor oil is often touted for its various potential health benefits and has been suggested as a natural remedy for a wide range of skin conditions, including warts caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).

Here are some properties of castor oil that may be relevant to its use in removing HPV warts:

Anti-inflammatory: Castor oil contains compounds that have anti-inflammatory properties, which may help reduce inflammation and irritation associated with warts.

Moisturizing: Castor oil is a rich source of fatty acids, which can help moisturize and soften the skin. This moisturizing effect may aid in soothing the skin around warts and preventing dryness or cracking.

Antimicrobial: Some research suggests that castor oil may have antimicrobial properties, which could potentially help prevent secondary infections in the area of the wart.

Keratolytic Action: Castor oil has been proposed to have keratolytic properties, meaning it can soften and break down the tough, outer layers of warts. This action may make it easier to remove warts over time.

Tissue Penetration: Castor oil is known for its ability to penetrate deeply into the skin. This property may allow it to reach the underlying layers of skin affected by the wart, potentially enhancing its effectiveness in treating warts.

Aloe Vera

Aloe vera is a popular natural remedy known for its potential benefits for skin health, including its use in wart treatment:

Anti-inflammatory: Aloe vera contains compounds that have anti-inflammatory properties, which may help reduce inflammation, redness, and irritation associated with warts.

Antimicrobial: Aloe vera has antimicrobial properties, which could help prevent secondary infections in the area of the wart and support overall skin health.

Moisturizing: Aloe vera is well-known for its moisturizing properties, which can help soothe and hydrate the skin. This moisturizing effect may be beneficial for maintaining skin health during wart treatment.

Wound Healing: Aloe vera contains compounds that promote wound healing and tissue repair. While warts are not traditional wounds, the application of aloe vera gel may support the skin’s natural healing processes and aid in the removal of warts over time.

Skin Penetration: Aloe vera gel has the ability to penetrate deeply into the skin, allowing its beneficial compounds to reach the underlying layers of skin affected by the wart.

Natural remedies for each type of wart

Common Warts:

  • Apple Cider Vinegar: Soak a cotton ball in apple cider vinegar and apply it to the common wart. Secure it with a bandage and leave it on overnight. Repeat daily until the wart disappears.
  • Garlic: Crush a clove of garlic and apply it directly to the wart. Cover it with a bandage and leave it on overnight. Repeat daily.

Garlic and Coconut Oil Cream for Common Warts:


  • 2 cloves of garlic
  • 1 tablespoon of virgin coconut oil


Peel and crush the garlic cloves to obtain a paste.

Mix the garlic paste with the coconut oil in a clean container.

Apply a small amount of the mixture onto the common wart and cover with a bandage.

Leave it on overnight.

Repeat this process every night until the wart disappears completely.

Palmar Warts (Warts on the Hands):

  • Duct Tape Occlusion Therapy: Cover the palmar wart with duct tape for about a week, then soak the wart in warm water and gently exfoliate with a pumice stone or emery board. Repeat the process until the wart is gone.
  • Tea Tree Oil: Apply diluted tea tree oil directly to the palmar wart using a cotton swab. Leave it on for a few hours or overnight. Repeat daily.

Plantar Warts (Warts on the Feet):

  • Salicylic Acid: Apply over-the-counter salicylic acid solution or pads to the plantar wart following the product instructions. It helps remove the layers of the wart gradually.
  • Dandelion Sap: Apply fresh dandelion sap directly to the plantar wart and cover it with a bandage. Repeat daily.

Flat Warts:

  • Aloe Vera Gel: Apply fresh aloe vera gel directly to the flat wart and massage it gently into the skin. Repeat several times a day.
  • Green Tea Extract: Soak a cotton ball in brewed green tea extract and apply it to the flat wart. Leave it on for 15-20 minutes, then rinse with water. Repeat daily.

Filiform Warts:

  • Vitamin C: Crush a vitamin C tablet and mix it with water to form a paste. Apply the paste to the filiform wart and cover it with a bandage. Repeat daily.
  • Banana Peel: Rub the inside of a banana peel onto the filiform wart for a few minutes. Repeat several times a day.

Oral Warts:

  • Licorice Root: Chew on a piece of licorice root several times a day. Licorice root contains compounds that may help fight viral infections, including oral warts.
  • Lemon Balm: Apply lemon balm ointment or cream directly to the oral wart several times a day. Lemon balm has antiviral properties that may help combat oral warts.

These natural remedies may vary in effectiveness from person to person, and it’s essential to be patient and consistent with their application. If the warts persist or worsen, it’s advisable to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

Natural Treatments for HPV Warts Scars

Treating scars left by HPV warts can be challenging, but there are natural remedies that may help improve their appearance over time. Here are some natural treatments for HPV warts scars:

Aloe Vera Gel: Aloe vera gel is well-known for its soothing and healing properties. Apply fresh aloe vera gel directly to the scarred area and massage it gently into the skin. Repeat this process several times a day.

Coconut Oil: Coconut oil is rich in fatty acids and antioxidants, which can help moisturize the skin and improve its elasticity. Apply coconut oil to the scarred area and massage it in circular motions. Leave it on overnight and rinse it off in the morning. Repeat daily.

Vitamin E Oil: Vitamin E is known for its skin-healing properties. Break open a vitamin E capsule and apply the oil directly to the scarred area. Massage it gently into the skin until fully absorbed. Repeat this process daily.

Honey: Honey has natural antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, which can help reduce inflammation and promote healing. Apply raw honey to the scarred area and leave it on for about 20 minutes before rinsing it off with warm water. Repeat several times a week.

Lemon Juice: Lemon juice contains alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), which can help exfoliate the skin and improve its texture. Apply freshly squeezed lemon juice to the scarred area using a cotton ball. Leave it on for about 10 minutes before rinsing it off with warm water. Repeat this process several times a week, but be cautious if you have sensitive skin, as lemon juice can cause irritation.

Rosehip Seed Oil: Rosehip seed oil is rich in vitamins, antioxidants, and essential fatty acids, which can help promote skin regeneration and reduce the appearance of scars. Apply a few drops of rosehip seed oil to the scarred area and massage it gently into the skin. Leave it on overnight and rinse it off in the morning. Repeat daily.

Turmeric Paste: Turmeric has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which can help reduce inflammation and promote healing. Mix turmeric powder with water to form a paste and apply it to the scarred area. Leave it on for about 15 minutes before rinsing it off with warm water. Repeat this process several times a week.

It’s important to note that natural remedies may take time to show results, and individual responses may vary. If you have concerns about your scars or are considering using natural treatments, it’s advisable to consult with a dermatologist or healthcare professional for personalized advice and guidance.

How to make homemade creams for warts

While the active ingredient directly addresses the primary skin concern or condition, adjuvant ingredients provide supportive or secondary benefits, and emulsifiers help maintain the stability and consistency of the formulation. Together, these components work synergistically to create effective and user-friendly skincare products.

  • The active ingredient is the component of the product that provides the primary therapeutic effect or targets a specific skin concern. In the context of wart creams, the active ingredient is typically the substance responsible for treating or removing warts. For example, salicylic acid is a common active ingredient in wart treatments because it helps dissolve the outer layers of the wart.
  • Adjuvant ingredients are additional components included in the formulation to support the action of the active ingredient or provide secondary benefits to the skin.vThese ingredients may enhance the efficacy of the active ingredient, improve the texture or appearance of the product, or provide additional skincare benefits such as hydration, soothing, or antioxidant protection.
  • An emulsifier is a type of ingredient that facilitates the mixing of water and oil-based components in a formulation, creating a stable and uniform mixture. In skincare formulations such as creams and lotions, emulsifiers help bind together water-based and oil-based ingredients, preventing them from separating.

Active Ingredients

Salicylic Acid: Salicylic acid is a common over-the-counter treatment for warts. It works by softening the top layer of the skin, allowing the wart to gradually peel away. You can find salicylic acid in many wart removal products, or you can purchase it separately and add it to your homemade cream.

Apple Cider Vinegar: Apple cider vinegar is believed to have antiviral properties and may help kill the virus that causes warts. It can also help exfoliate the skin and remove dead skin cells.

Adjuvant Ingredients:

Aloe Vera Gel: Aloe vera gel has soothing and moisturizing properties, which can help soothe the skin and reduce irritation caused by the wart.

Tea Tree Oil: Tea tree oil has antimicrobial properties and may help fight the virus that causes warts. It can also help soothe the skin and reduce inflammation.


Beeswax: Beeswax is commonly used as an emulsifier in homemade creams. It helps bind the ingredients together and gives the cream a smooth texture. Beeswax also has moisturizing properties, which can help hydrate the skin.

Cetyl Alcohol: Cetyl alcohol is a fatty alcohol derived from plants, often used as an emulsifier and thickening agent in skincare products. It helps stabilize the mixture of water and oils in the cream, creating a smooth and creamy texture.

Others: Coconut Oil, Karite Butter


  1. Melt to beeswax (optional add cetyl alcohol) in a double boiler until both are completely liquefied.
  2. Once the beeswax is melted, remove it from the heat and add the other ingredients, including the active ingredient (salicylic acid,apple cider vinegar) and adjuvant ingredients (aloe vera gel, tea tree oil).
  3. Stir the mixture well until all the ingredients are thoroughly combined.
  4. Pour the mixture into a clean, airtight container and allow it to cool and solidify.
  5. Once the cream has solidified, it is ready to use. Apply a small amount of the cream to the affected area twice daily, or as directed by your healthcare provider.

Remember to patch test any homemade cream on a small area of skin before applying it to larger areas, especially if you have sensitive skin. If you experience any irritation or adverse reactions, discontinue use immediately and consult with a healthcare professional.

The cream should be stored in an airtight container, in a cool, dark place, preferably in the refrigerator if possible, and should be used within 1 to 2 weeks to avoid contamination and deterioration.

If you want a longer life for the cream, you can use preservatives. Preservatives are substances added to skincare products and other cosmetic products to prevent the growth of microorganisms and ensure their safety and stability. Some natural preservatives include grapefruit seed extract, thyme essential oil, citric acid, vitamin E, lavender oil.

Stage 3: HSIL / CIN3

A Closer Look at Severe Dysplasia and Treatment Paths

It’s crucial for individuals diagnosed with CIN 3 to work closely with their healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate treatment plan based on their specific circumstances and health history.

Neoplasia System

CIN1 – Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia Grade 3

Bestheda System

HSIL – High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

Severe cervical dysplasia CIN3 / HSIL

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3) is considered a high-grade cervical dysplasia, representing severe abnormalities in the cervical cells. CIN 3 is also referred to as carcinoma in situ, indicating that the abnormal cells are present and confined to the surface layer of the cervix.

Can cervical dysplasia be cured?

Yes. Removing or destroying the abnormal cells cures cervical dysplasia in about 90% of all cases. Cervical dysplasia rarely progresses to cancer. When it does progress, it does so very slowly, allowing time for your healthcare provider to intervene.

Treatments Stage 3

Cold knife conization

This surgical procedure removes the abnormal areas removing a cone-shaped piece of the cervix. The cone-shaped piece of tissue contains the abnormal cells. It was once the preferred method of treating cervical dysplasia, but now it’s reserved for more severe cases. Conization can provide a sample of tissue for further testing. It has a somewhat higher risk of complications, including cervical stenosis and postoperative bleeding.

CKC is performed with a scalpel, typically under general or regional anesthesia, and is conventionally believed to yield a larger specimen with less thermal damage to the margins compared to other excisional methods.

Source: Obgyn

Surgical uterus removal

Hysterectomy involves removing your uterus. A hysterectomy may be an option in cases where cervical dysplasia persists or doesn’t improve after other procedures.

Fertility & Pregnacy Considerations

Treatment for CIN 3 may impact fertility, especially if a large portion of the cervix is removed. It’s important for individuals to discuss fertility concerns with their healthcare provider before undergoing treatment.

If the woman is pregnant, it is advisable to wait till the baby is born. If the condition is severe and the woman is not going to have children, removing the uterus is the course of action taken.

+ Info Genital

Understanding Genital Warts

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of related viruses that can infect the genital area and other mucous membranes, such as the mouth and throat. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. Some strains of HPV can lead to genital warts, which are a common symptom of HPV infection.

Genital warts are a symptom of HPV infection caused by certain strains of the virus, most commonly HPV types 6 and 11. These warts can appear on the genitals, in the pubic area, on the inner thighs, or around the anus. They can vary in size and appearance, from small, flesh-colored bumps to larger clusters that resemble cauliflower.

While the infection is similar in men and women, there are some differences in how genital warts manifest and progress:


Commonly appear on the vulva, in or around the vagina, cervix, and anus.

May develop internal genital warts on the cervix, which may not be visible and can only be detected through a Pap smear or other diagnostic methods.

May experience bleeding between periods or after intercourse, especially if warts are present on the cervix.

Certain strains of HPV that cause genital warts can also increase the risk of cervical cancer.


Are often found on the penis, scrotum, and around the anus.

Do not have internal genital warts in the same way, as their internal genital structures are different.

May notice small, flesh-colored bumps on the genital or anal areas.

Are at a lower risk of developing complications, they can still experience discomfort and psychological stress.

Source: Wikipedia

FAQ on Genital Warts

What do early signs of genital warts look like?

Genital warts look like skin-colored or whitish bumps that show up on your vulva, vagina, cervix, penis, scrotum, or anus. They kind of look like little pieces of cauliflower. You can have just one wart or a bunch of them, and they can be big or small. They might be itchy, but most of the time they don’t hurt.

What can be mistaken for genital warts?

Molluscum contagiosum can be mistaken for genital warts or pimples. If you notice any unusual skin lesions, see your doctor or health professional for an accurate diagnosis. There is no test for molluscum contagiosum. It is diagnosed through a physical examination by looking at the appearance of the lesions.

How long could I have had genital warts without knowing?

Keep in mind that genital warts may not appear for months to years after having sexual contact with an infected person.

How long do genital warts last?

Most HPV infections that cause genital warts will go away on their own, taking anywhere from a few months to two years. But even if your genital warts disappear without treatment, you may still have the virus. When left untreated, genital warts can grow very large and in big clusters.

Can I spread genital warts by touching myself?

A different strain of HPV causes the type of warts you find on other parts of your body. You can’t get genital warts by touching yourself or someone else with a wart on your hands or feet. Genital warts spread through: Intercourse, including anal, vaginal-penile and vaginal-vaginal.

Will genital warts grow back if you cut them off?

After treatment, warts may continue to grow if the therapy proved ineffective or didn’t entirely remove the wart. Additionally, if treatment required an incision to be made in the skin, that incision can become re-infected with HPV – meaning a new wart can grow.

What makes genital warts worse?

If you already have genital warts, shaving and waxing your pubic hair can lead to more widespread infection. That’s because these hair removal techniques can cause tiny cuts and abrasions or irritation of the skin, which can allow the virus to enter and infect a larger area of skin.

Treatment to beat them

Topical OTC creams

Topical Creams: Provider administration

There is no cure for HPV itself, but genital warts can be treated and removed. The choice of treatment depends on the size and location of the warts. Treatment options include

Podophyllin resinA brownish and yellowish chemical that is applied directly to the affected area and allowed to air-dry. This chemical will damage the warts.May cause a burning sensation as it dries. The solution can be absorbed into the body and can cause side effects. Thus, some providers may thoroughly wash off the solution 1-4 hours after application.
Podophyllin (Podocon-25) and podofilox (Condylox). Podophyllin is a plant-based substance that destroys genital wart tissue. A health care professional puts this solution on your skin. Podofilox contains the same active compound, but you can put it on at home.Never place podofilox inside your body. Also, this medicine isn’t recommended for use during pregnancy. Side effects can include mild skin irritation, sores and pain.
Imiquimod (Zyclara)This cream seems to boost the immune system’s ability to fight genital warts. Do not have sexual contact while the cream is on your skin. It might weaken condoms and diaphragms and irritate your partner’s skin.One possible side effect is a change in skin color where the medicine is used. Other side effects might include blisters, body aches or pain, a cough, rashes, and fatigue.
Trichloroacetic (TAC) or Bichloracetic acid (BCA)Chemicals that destroy the warts by burning them. A small amount is applied only to the warts and allowed to dry. The warts will turn a white color, shrink and then disappear. Can be repeated weekly and may require multiple treatments.Chemicals that destroy the warts by burning them. A small amount is applied only to the warts and allowed to dry. The warts will turn a white color, shrink and then disappear. Can be repeated weekly and may require multiple treatments.
Interlesional interferonApplied as cream or injection. Interferon triggers your immune system to fight infection. Interferon may be applied directly to genital warts as a cream or injected into the warts and the skin surrounding them. May require multiple treatments.Usually used if other treatment methods have failed.
Sinecatechins (Veregen)This ointment can treat genital warts on the body and warts in or around the anus. Side effects can include a change in skin color, itching or burning, and pain.


Electrocautery removes genital warts on the penis, vulva, or around the anus by burning them with a low-voltage electrified probe. Electrocautery is usually done in a doctor’s office or a clinic. The injection of a numbing medicine (local anesthetic) is usually used for pain control.

Surgical removal

The doctor uses a local anesthetic to numb the skin or the cervix and then excises the wart or abnormal tissue using a scalpel. Stitches are typically necessary, which dissolve on their own in two to three weeks. Sexual activity should be avoided during the healing process, which can take about two to four weeks.

Laser therapy

A laser can be used to destroy genital warts. Laser surgery may be done in a doctor’s office or clinic, a hospital, or an outpatient surgery centre. Local or general anesthetic may be used. Which one you get depends on how many warts need treatment and the size of the area to be treated.

Cryotherapy: freezing the warts

Cryotherapy (cryosurgery) destroys genital warts by freezing them. A doctor applies a very cold substance, such as liquid nitrogen, around the warts to freeze them. You may have a mild or moderate burning sensation during treatment.

CO2 Laser therapy vs cryotherapy in treatment of genital warts

Generally, the efficacy of CO2 laser treatment of external genital warts was approximately two fold greater than cryotherapy and it was associated with lower recurrence rate.


Genital warts are not dangerous for pregnant women. They may cause discomfort, itching and pain, but they are not dangerous. Existing warts may grow faster or bigger during pregnancy due to changes in your hormones or immune systems. This may make things like urinating uncomfortable.

The treatment of genital warts in infants includes removing them under general anesthesia or applying a topical medication (podophyllin). However, many babies who contract HPV during delivery never become symptomatic because their immune system is strong enough to fight the infection. 

Genital wart removal is recommended during pregnancy. Specific types of HPV (6 and 11) can be transmitted to infants and children causing respiratory problems.

Please note that Podofilox, Imiquimod, and Podophyllin are not recommended for use during pregnancy as they are absorbed by the skin and may cause birth defects in the baby.

Things to keep in mind after surgical procedures:

  • You may have a slightly odorous watery and/or bloody discharge for several weeks after procedure. You can wash the labia (vaginal lips) with warm water several times throughout the day and use sanitary pads not tampons.
  • Avoid intercourse or douching for at least 3 weeks following the procedure. (Note: douching is generally not recommended, ever, as it can worsen — and may cause — GYN conditions.)
  • Can use Tylenol or Advil as needed for pain relief.

Other names for GW

While these terms may be used in a medical context, “genital warts” is the most commonly recognized and straightforward way to refer to this condition.

Condyloma acuminatum:

  • “Condyloma” refers to a genital wart.
  • “Acuminatum” means pointed or acuminate, describing the appearance of the wart.

Venereal warts:

  • “Venereal” relates to sexual intercourse or sexually transmitted infections.
  • This term emphasizes the connection between the warts and sexual activity.

Anogenital warts:

  • “Ano-” refers to the anus, and “genital” refers to the reproductive organs.
  • This term is used to describe warts located in the genital and anal areas.

HPV-related lesions:

  • This term is more general and includes any abnormal tissue changes caused by the human papillomavirus, which can include genital warts.

Genital warts and vulvar neoplasia

Genital warts and vulvar neoplasia are two distinct conditions that affect the genital area in females. Here are the key differences between them:

Genital Warts

Genital warts are caused by certain strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV). They manifest as small growths or lumps on the genital and anal areas. Genital warts are generally considered benign (non-cancerous) and are categorized as a sexually transmitted infection (STI).

Caused by specific strains of HPV, primarily types 6 and 11.

Present as small, flesh-colored growths or lumps on the genital or anal area. They may be raised or flat and can vary in size.

Characterized by the presence of wart-like growths caused by HPV infection. Biopsy may reveal characteristic changes.

Generally considered benign and not associated with an increased risk of cancer. However, the same types of HPV that cause genital warts (such as types 6 and 11) can also cause other HPV-related cancers, like cervical cancer.

Vulvar Neoplasia

Vulvar neoplasia refers to abnormal cell growth in the vulvar tissues, which can be either benign or malignant. Malignant vulvar neoplasia can lead to vulvar cancer. It is not directly caused by HPV infection, but persistent HPV infection is a known risk factor for developing vulvar cancer.

The exact cause is not always clear, but it is often associated with chronic inflammation, older age, smoking, and long-term HPV infection.

Symptoms may include itching, pain, tenderness, or changes in the color or thickness of the skin on the vulva. In more advanced stages, a visible mass or ulceration may be present.

Involves abnormal cell growth in the vulvar tissues, which can be either non-cancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant). Malignant cases are associated with cancerous changes in the cells.

May lead to vulvar cancer, especially in cases of malignant neoplasia. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types is a known risk factor for vulvar cancer.

It’s important to note that both conditions require medical attention. Genital warts can be treated and managed, and regular screenings are essential to detect and manage vulvar neoplasia early, improving outcomes. Individuals with concerns about their genital health should consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and guidance.

What can be mistakes with genital warts?

Several conditions can be mistaken for genital warts due to their similar appearance. Here are some possibilities:

Molluscum Contagiosum: Molluscum contagiosum is a viral skin infection that causes small, raised bumps on the skin. These bumps can resemble genital warts, but they tend to have a central dimple or indentation. Unlike genital warts, molluscum contagiosum lesions are often painless and may resolve on their own over time.

Skin Tags: Skin tags are small, soft growths that can develop in areas where the skin rubs against itself, such as the groin or genital area. While they may appear similar to genital warts at first glance, skin tags typically have a smoother surface and a narrower base than genital warts.

Sebaceous Prominence: Sebaceous prominence, also known as Fordyce spots, is a condition characterized by the appearance of small, raised bumps on the skin. These bumps are caused by enlarged oil glands and are usually painless. While they can occur in the genital area, they are not sexually transmitted and are not contagious.

Pearly Penile Papules (PPP): Pearly penile papules are small, dome-shaped bumps that commonly appear around the head of the penis. While they can resemble genital warts, PPP are harmless and not caused by a sexually transmitted infection. They are considered a normal variant of penile anatomy.

Folliculitis: Folliculitis is the inflammation or infection of hair follicles, often caused by bacteria, fungi, or ingrown hairs. It can cause red, inflamed bumps that may be mistaken for genital warts, especially if they occur in the pubic area. However, folliculitis typically resolves with proper hygiene and treatment.

If you notice any unusual bumps, lesions, or changes in the genital area, it’s important to consult a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis. A healthcare professional, such as a dermatologist or a doctor specializing in sexual health, can provide appropriate evaluation and recommend the necessary treatment, if needed. Additionally, practicing safe sex and getting regular STI screenings are essential for maintaining sexual health.

Virus Strains

Understanding HPV Strains: Types & Risks

Over 170 types of HPV have been identified, and they are designated by numbers. The most common types of HPV worldwide are 16 (3.2%), 18 (1.4%), 52 (0.9%), 31 (0.8%), and 58 (0.7%).
They may be divided into “low-risk” and “high-risk” types.  Low-risk types cause warts and high-risk types can cause lesions or cancer.

High Risk & Low Risk

  • High-risk HPV types can infect cervical cells and cause cervical cancer. They can also infect certain other cells to cause anal cancer, penile cancer, vaginal cancer, vulvar cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer (cancer in the middle of the throat, including the tonsils and the back of the tongue).Cervical cancer is almost always caused by high-risk HPV. Types 16 and 18 two strains account for 70% of cases.
  • Low-risk HPV types can cause genital warts. These are warts on the external and internal sex organs and glands. Genital warts do not turn into cancer.Types 6 and 11 are common causes of genital warts and laryngeal papillomatosis
Common warts2, 7, 22
Plantar warts1, 2, 4, 63
Flat warts3, 10, 28
Anogenital warts6, 11, 42, 44 and others
Anal dysplasia (lesions)16, 18, 31, 53, 58
Genital cancers
-Highest risk16, 18, 31, 45
-Other high-risk33, 35, 39, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59
-Probably high-risk26, 53, 66, 68, 73, 82
Epidermodysplasia verruciformismore than 15 types
Focal epithelial hyperplasia (mouth)13, 32
Mouth papillomas6, 7, 11, 16, 32
Oropharyngeal cancer16
Verrucous cyst60
Laryngeal papillomatosis6, 11

HPV Genotyping: Identifying Specific Strains

Genotyping is a laboratory technique used to identify and distinguish between specific types or strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV).
Purpose of Genotyping: While a standard HPV test detects the presence of the virus, genotyping goes a step further by identifying the exact type of HPV.
Different HPV types have varying levels of risk for developing into cancer.

Low-Risk Strains and Genital Warts:

  • Genotyping can also identify low-risk strains responsible for conditions such as genital warts.
  • Differentiating between high and low-risk strains helps guide healthcare decisions and interventions.

Identifying High-Risk Strains:

  • Highlight that genotyping can identify high-risk HPV strains, which are more strongly associated with the development of cervical and other cancers.
  • Common high-risk strains include HPV 16 and 18.

HPV tests – Variation between tests

Various types of HPV tests are currently available, and they use different technologies. The tests are broadly classified as those that detect the presence of DNA of high-risk HPV coding for L1 viral surface protein (HPV DNA tests) and those that detect the presence of messenger RNA (mRNA) coding for E6/E7 proteins of high-risk HPV types (HPV RNA tests).

Most of the currently available tests can detect the presence of any of the 12 high-risk HPV types. Some of the tests detect the presence of any of these HPV types in the sample without individually identifying the genotypes. Others may individually detect a limited number of genotypes (mostly HPV16 and HPV18) concurrently, with aggregate detection of the other high-risk HPV genotypes. The information on HPV16 and HPV18 received as part of the HPV test report (concurrent genotyping) is used for triage along with VIA, cytology, or colposcopy.

Source: WHO

Several techniques are employed for HPV genotyping to identify specific strains of the virus. The choice of technique may depend on factors such as sensitivity, specificity, cost, and the number of HPV types being targeted. Here are some commonly used techniques for HPV genotyping:

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR):

  • Principle: PCR is a molecular biology technique that amplifies DNA segments, allowing for the detection and identification of specific DNA sequences.
  • Application: HPV DNA is amplified using specific primers for targeted regions. The resulting DNA products are then analyzed to identify the HPV types present.

Reverse Line Blot Hybridization (RLB):

  • Principle: RLB is a technique that combines PCR amplification with DNA hybridization on a solid support (such as a membrane).
  • Application: After PCR amplification of HPV DNA, the products are hybridized to specific probes immobilized on a membrane. The pattern of hybridization indicates the presence of specific HPV types.

DNA Microarray:

  • Principle: DNA microarrays are solid supports containing a large number of unique DNA probes arranged in an array.
  • Application: HPV DNA is amplified through PCR and then hybridized to the microarray. The pattern of hybridization helps identify the specific HPV types present.

Line Probe Assays (LPA):

  • Principle: LPA is a molecular biology technique that combines PCR amplification with the detection of specific DNA sequences using labeled probes.
  • Application: PCR-amplified HPV DNA is hybridized to specific probes fixed on a strip or membrane. Detection of labeled DNA indicates the presence of specific HPV types.

Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS):

  • Principle: NGS allows for the high-throughput sequencing of DNA, providing detailed information about the entire genome.
  • Application: HPV DNA is sequenced, and the obtained sequence data are analyzed to identify specific HPV types. NGS can provide information on multiple HPV types simultaneously.


  • Principle: Pyrosequencing is a sequencing-by-synthesis method that detects the release of pyrophosphate during DNA synthesis.
  • Application: After PCR amplification of HPV DNA, pyrosequencing is used to determine the sequence. Specific sequence patterns identify the HPV types.

Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP):

  • Principle: SSCP is a technique that exploits the differences in mobility of single-stranded DNA fragments on a gel.
  • Application: PCR-amplified HPV DNA is denatured and separated on a gel. Variations in the single-stranded DNA mobility pattern help identify specific HPV types.

The choice of genotyping technique depends on factors such as the level of resolution needed, the number of HPV types to be identified, and the available resources. Each technique has its advantages and limitations, and researchers or clinicians may choose the most suitable method based on the specific requirements of their study or clinical setting.

Prevalence of Each Type

The prevalence of the types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is significant throughout the world, being one of the most common sexually transmitted viruses. It is estimated that the vast majority of sexually active people will contract at least one form of HPV at some point in their lives.

HPV types vary in their oncogenic potential, and high-risk types, such as types 16 and 18, are linked to an increased risk of developing cervical and other related cancers.

Screening & Detection

Screening & Detection Insights

Welcome to a comprehensive exploration of HPV testing, its implications, and potential outcomes. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a prevalent infection with significant health ramifications, making screening a critical aspect of preventive healthcare.

Based on your individual risk of developing severe cervical cell changes that could become cervical cancer, you may be advised to

  • return for a repeat HPV test or HPV/Pap cotest in 1 or 3 years
  • have a colposcopy and biopsy
  • receive treatment

There are various screening techniques available, highlighting their effectiveness and importance in identifying HPV infections and related abnormalities. Understanding the screening process is key to maintaining optimal health and preventing the progression of potential complications.


The test is similar but they search for a different outcome:

The HPV test looks for the virus (human papillomavirus) that can cause these types of cellular changes in the cervix.

The Pap test (or Pap smear) looks for precancers, which are changes in the cells of the cervix that could become cancer if not treated properly.

Source: WHO

HPV/Pap cotest: uses combine both to check for both high risk HPV and cervical cell changes. If your doctor finds that you have a type of HPV that can lead to cancer, they may suggest you get Pap tests more often to watch for signs of abnormal cell changes in the genital area.

HPV test results

HPV test results show whether high-risk HPV types were found in cervical cells. An HPV test will come back as a negative test result or a positive test result.

  • Negative HPV test result: 

High-risk HPV was not found. You should have the next test in 5 years. You may need to come back sooner if you had abnormal results in the past.

  • Positive HPV test result: 

High-risk HPV was found. Your healthcare provider will recommend  follow-up steps you need to take, based on your specific test result.

ResultWhat it means
HPV found (HPV positive), but no abnormal cell changesYou’ll be invited for screening in 1 year and again 1 year later if you still have HPV. If you still have HPV after 2 years, you’ll be asked to have a colposcopy.
HPV found (HPV positive) and abnormal cell changesYou’ll be asked to have a colposcopy.

What does it mean if you have a positive HPV test after years of negative tests?

Sometimes, after several negative HPV tests, a woman may have a positive HPV test result. This is not necessarily a sign of a new HPV infection. Sometimes an HPV infection can become active again after many years.

Pap test results

Pap test results show whether cervical cells are normal or abnormal. A Pap test may also come back as unsatisfactory.

Normal or negative Pap test results: No abnormal cervical cells were found.

Abnormal or positive Pap test results:  Some of the cells of the cervix look different from the normal cells. Abnormal Pap test results include

  • Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US):  It means that some cells don’t look completely normal, but it’s not clear if the changes are caused by HPV infection.
  • Atypical glandular cells (AGC): Some glandular cells were found that do not look normal.
  • Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL): There are low-grade changes that are usually caused by an HPV infection.
  • Atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H): Some abnormal squamous cells were found that may be a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), although it’s not certain.
  • High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL): There are moderately or severely abnormal cervical cells that could become cancer in the future if not treated.
  • Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS): An advanced lesion (area of abnormal growth) was found in the glandular tissue of the cervix. AIS lesions may be referred to as precancer and may become cancer (cervical adenocarcinoma) if not treated.
  • Cervical cancer cells (squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma): Cancer cells were found; this finding is very rare for people who have been screened at regular intervals.  

Follow-up tests

Keep in mind that most people with abnormal cervical screening test results do not have cancer. However, if you have an abnormal test result, it’s important to get the follow-up care that your health care provider recommends.

State of dormacy

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) can sometimes enter a state of dormancy in the human body. When HPV is in a dormant state, it means that the virus is present but not actively causing any symptoms or abnormalities. The virus can exist in a latent or inactive form, and during this period, it may not be detectable through routine tests. Key points about HPV dormancy include:

Asymptomatic Carrier State:

  • Many people who contract HPV may never experience any symptoms, and the virus can remain dormant in their bodies.
  • An individual may be an asymptomatic carrier, meaning they carry the virus but do not develop visible warts or other HPV-related conditions.


  • HPV can be reactivated, leading to the recurrence of symptoms or the development of new ones.
  • Factors such as a weakened immune system, stress, or other health conditions may contribute to the reactivation of the virus.

Persistent Infections:

  • In some cases, HPV infections persist over an extended period without causing noticeable symptoms or complications.
  • Persistent infections with high-risk HPV types are associated with an increased risk of developing cervical and other cancers.

Screening and Detection:

  • Dormant HPV infections may not be easily detectable through routine screening methods.
  • Screening methods, such as Pap smears and HPV DNA tests, are designed to identify active infections or cellular changes that may indicate a risk of developing cervical cancer.

Is citology and pap smear the same?

Yes, in the context of HPV (Human Papillomavirus) and cervical cancer screening, “cytology” and “Pap smear” are often used interchangeably, though there are subtle differences.


  • Cytology refers to the study of cells. In the context of cervical cancer screening, cytology involves examining cells collected from the cervix to detect any abnormalities.
  • Cytology is a broader term that encompasses various methods of studying cells, and it can be used for different types of cytological examinations, not limited to cervical cells.

Pap Smear:

  • A Pap smear, or Papanicolaou smear, is a specific type of cytological examination used for cervical cancer screening.
  • During a Pap smear, cells are collected from the cervix and then examined under a microscope to identify any abnormal changes in the cervical cells that could be indicative of HPV infection or precancerous conditions.


During this procedure, a lighted instrument called a colposcope magnifies the cervix, bringing abnormal cells into view. Then they are removed to test them in a lab for signs of precancer or cancer (biopsy).

Biopsy findings

Biopsy samples are checked by a pathologist for CIN.CIN is the term used to describe abnormal cervical cells that were found on the surface of the cervix after a biopsy.

CIN is graded on a scale of 1 to 3, based on how abnormal the cells look under a microscope and how much of the cervical tissue is affected. LSIL changes seen on a Pap test are generally CIN 1. HSIL changes seen on a Pap test can be CIN 2, CIN2/3, or CIN 3.

  • CIN 1 changes are mild, or low grade. They usually go away on their own and do not require treatment.
  • CIN 2 changes are moderate and are typically treated by removing the abnormal cells. However, CIN 2 can sometimes go away on its own. CIN 2 must be treated if it progresses to CIN 3 or does not go away in 1 to 2 years.
  • CIN 3 changes are severely abnormal. Although CIN 3 is not cancer, it may become cancer and spread to nearby normal tissue if not treated.
Colposcopy view

Is VIA and colposcopy the same?

No, VIA (Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid) and colposcopy are not the same procedures, but they are related in the context of HPV (Human Papillomavirus) and cervical cancer screening.

VIA (Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid):

  • VIA is a simple and low-cost screening method for detecting cervical abnormalities, including those caused by HPV.
  • During VIA, a healthcare provider applies acetic acid (vinegar) to the cervix, and visual changes in the cervical tissue are observed.
  • The acetic acid causes abnormal cells to temporarily turn white, making them more visible.


  • Colposcopy is a more advanced and detailed examination compared to VIA.
  • It involves using a colposcope, which is a magnifying instrument, to closely examine the cervix and vaginal tissues.
  • Colposcopy is often performed if there are abnormal results from a Pap smear or other screening tests, including VIA.

Find more information about your results here

Most HPV infections (90%) clear up on their own within 2 years.
There is no treatment for the virus itself. However, there are treatments for the health problems that HPV can cause.

From negative results offering peace of mind to positive results prompting further investigation, each outcome plays a crucial role in managing and maintaining reproductive health.

By comprehending the lifecycle of HPV and its potential consequences, you can take proactive steps towards prevention and early management.

Implications for Women:

  • For women, a positive result may lead to additional screenings, such as colposcopy, to examine cervical cells more closely.
  • Abnormal cell changes can be monitored and treated to prevent the progression to cancer.

Implications for Men:

  • HPV can affect men as well, causing genital warts or, in some cases, leading to cancers such as penile or anal cancer.
  • Beaware of the importance of regular health check-ups for men.

No test for other cancers

There aren’t any approved tests for identifying HPV on the vulva, vagina, penis, scrotum, rectum or anus. HPV-related cancers on these body parts are much less common than cervical cancer. There’s no similar test for the strains of HPV that cause cancer in men, except for anal cancer.

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